It is defined as the the capacity to do work The S,I unit of energy is Joule. progress of nation is depends on available source of energy and proper utilization of resources. Energy consumption has been continuously increasing with the increasing of population. Developed country have highest per capita energy consumption. energy is available in different forms. electrical energy is the best form of available energy. energy is available in following forms:-
Characteristics of energy
It is available in different forms and has following characteristics:-
- Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed.
- These can be converted from one form to another form.
- It can be transmitted from one place to another place.
- They can be stored in different forms.
- It flows from higher potential to the lower potential.
- Different forms of energy has a different energy densities.
- Energy does not have an absolute value. It is always measured with reference to a base value.
There are two types of Energy:-
Potential Energy is defined as the energy in a body due to its position is called potential energy. In mathematically it is expressed as:-
Potential Energy= mgh
Where m=mass, g=acceleration due to gravity, h-height
the heavy ball of a demolition machine is storing energy when it is held at an elevated position. This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy.
Potential energy is further classified into two categries as:-
- Gravitational potential energy
- Elastic Potential energy
- Chemical potential energy
Kinetic energy is defined as the energy of an object that possesses due to its motion. In mathematically it is expressed as:-
where m=mass(kg), v=velocity(m/s)
running vehicles, an aircraft in flight etc. are the examples of kinetic energy.
Electrical energy is the most convenient to use. It has following advantages over other forms of energy:
- It is pollution free and environment friendly
- No smoke is produced with use of electrical energy.
- It can be easily converted to other forms of energy.
- It can be easily transmitted over long distances.
- The efficiency of transmission id high.
- Control of appliances using electrical energy is easy, safe and less expensive.
- Voltage of electric supply can be easily increased or decreased as per requirement.
- It can be stored in the form of chemical energy e.g – (Battery).
There are many sources which can be used to get electrical energy. The conventional sources used for generation of electrical energy in India are coal, Lignite, petroleum products, water and nuclear fission. The availability of coal and petroleum products is limited and these sources are likely to vanish with time. Use of water for generation of electrical energy is limited by geographical limitation. Availability of nuclear fuel is also limited. Hence India has to look for alternatives source of energy which would be available in abundance over a long period of time. Such resources are known as non-conventional energy sources. There may also be called renewable source of energy.
Energy source can be categorized into:-
- Renewable energy
- Non-Renewable energy
Non-renewable source of energy
These types of energy cannot be used again and again therefore these type of energy is called non-renewable source of energy. These are also called conventional source of energy.
Examples of Non-Renewable source of energy:-
- LPG( Liquified Petroleum Gas)
- Natural gasses
- Nuclear power energy
- Petroleum products like- Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene etc.
Renewable Energy sources
A source of energy which can be used again and again is called renewable energy. Sometimes we also called non-conventional source of energy
Examples of renewable energy:-
- Solar energy
- Wind energy
- Tidal energy
- Bio-gas energy
- Bio-mass energy
- Geothermal energy
- Hydro electric energy
Advantages of renewable energy source
- These sources are available in nature and are inexhaustible. Since these sources are renewable energy, there is no danger in their depletion.
- Renewable energy sources are available in nature at negligible cost. The only cost involved would be the cost of conversion into electrical energy.
- Availability of renewable energy sources is limited to particular regions. Hence these can be used to generate electrical energy for local applications thereby reducing the cost of transmission.
- The power plant and machinery required to convert into electrical energy is simple and less expensive with renewable energy system.
- Use of these renewable energy sources for conversion to electrical energy will generate employment and hence uplift the society.
- Renewable energy sources have low energy densities. Thus there is no problem of pollution of ecological balance.
Disadvantages of Renewable energy sources
- Lack of dependability and intermittent availability is the major disadvantage of these energy sources. Availability of sun is limited to day time only which is further restricted by the weather conditions such as cloudy days or rainy seasons.
- Although the basic cost of these fuel is low, yet the cost of renewable energy sources is low. Yet the cost of conversion to electrical energy limits their use.
- Low energy densities results in low operating temperatures and low efficiency. It also results in increased cost of production.
- As expected these energy sources are not completely free from pollution.
- The area of lands required to set up electrical generations stations using these fuels is larger thereby increasing the capital /initial cost of the plant.
- Large size of these plants causes ecological balance problems. Setting up of dam requires large catchment area and civil works causing displacement of population and requiring construction of dam.
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