capacitor symbol and working explained
Basic of capacitor
in this article we will learn abou the capacitor symbol and working of the capacitor. A capacitor is a passive device that is used to store electric charge in the form of electric charge. Capacitors are widely used in electrical and electronics components. A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating (dielectric) material.
Dielectric material -the insulating material that is used to separate the two metals in the capacitors. It is placed between the metals and it ensures that the metals are not come in the contact of each other. The dielectric materials made up of insulating materials like glass, paper, mica or ceramics etc.
Capacitance of the capacitor
capacitance of the capacitor can be determined by the capacitance is equal to the electric charge divided by the voltage.
C = Q / V
- C = capacitance
- Q = electric charge
- V = voltage
The capacitance of the capacitor depends upon the physical size of the capacitor and hence the capacitance is given by:-
C = eA/d
- A = surface area of each plate
- E =permittivity= ereo
- Er = relative permittivity
- Eo = permittivity in free space
- D = distance between the plates
Generally three factors determine the value of the capacitance
- The surface area of the plate – when the surface area of the plate is larger it becomes greater the capacitance and when the surface area is smaller capacitance decrease.
- The spacing between the plates – when spacing between the plates are smaller it becomes greater the capacitance.
- The permittivity of the material – when the permittivity of the material is higher it becomes greater the capacitance.
The SI Unit of the capacitance is Farad ( F ) .
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one farad is defined as the when a charge of one coulomb is accumulated on the application of one volt.
1 farad = 1 coulomb / 1 volt = 9*1011 esu
where esu = electrostatic unit
1 farad is a large quantity so it is generally represented in microfarad, nanofarad and picofarad